accordance with international universities and recognized industry development of the software industry will go through three stages différentes.La first phase is the mid-70s to mid-90’s production phase of software for architecture, which is based on structural analysis and design, structural evaluation, structural design and structural testing procedures caractérisé.Depuis the mid-80s, entered the software production process focused on the second phase, the Personal Software Process PSP (Personal Software Process) process Maturity Model CMM and software process group TSP (Team Software Process) for the logo, should be completed by lephase 2005.Et from 1995 has been gradually entering international software process, reuse and object-oriented software components, Jieduan third of the three technologies Jichu Gongye Hua Sheng Chan.
However, it still exists in the structure of the production stage of software, just beginning to deal with the center of the second phase of the transition.Bien some large software companies began vigorously huh internal model based on CMM process improvement, and has achieved some success, but understanding the improvement of business processes is not clear.
errors can not be ignored
Capacity software development company depends on the ability of the software company processus.Si a treatment capacity of more mature enterprise software and the capabilities of the software development company assurées.Un are many of practical experience shows that reflect the ability to develop enterprise software in the factors, techniques or tools are not premier.En fact, many of the problems not with do not know how to do but not willing to do, do not order, or do not know how to do better.
Currently, the FC process management software (Figure 1), the editors of China’s software There are several factors that affect the improvement of processes and errors, especially in individual and organizational aspects.
In terms of organization, first of all, Chinese enterprises often lack CMM software support frames supérieurs.Deuxièmement, there are not enough resources SEPG.Dans many cases to consider, SEPG Member CMM group linked to the high quality of a global level, the CMM-related quality management team needs more than one level of high-tech clusters to work in douceur.Troisièmement there not appropriate or inappropriate pioneering project manager with the view globale.Conseil as a precursor staff has often said that he did not have time, because these people are from outside of various projects and Most people barely have enough power to enable them to work with CMM.Enfin, software organizations lack detailed project plan and tracking adjustment.
individual, complex first-hand personal heroism workshop style implementation constraints CMM.Deuxièmement, some software developers mistakenly believe that management processes will be affected or suppressed creative professionals, in fact there is no clear definition of a procedure régulière.Troisièmement the success of software projects rely more heavily on a small number of technical staff and outstanding skills of project management experience of successful projects can not get the maximum inheritance, software production is relatively low reproductibilité.Enfin, the software company is relatively frequent staff changes have also increased the difficulty of implementing the CMM.
In the process of improving the overall recommendations should be three to prepare seven steps.
First, the preparation of the organization, in addition to urging investors Zhichi CMM process Gaishan higher management software, management has the responsibility Weituo Fuze Shishizhiwai CMM, the establishment of Software Engineering Process Group (SEPG), Yan Jiu CMM Bianxie / Bi Yaodocumenter edit the document and promote the creation of the Group of Software Quality Assurance (SQAG), research techniques and process of software quality assurance, preparation / modification of a document necessary SQA and the document has been prepared to promote, measure and analyze the progress of the project, the feedback process of the proposed state preparation etprocessus review, plans and standards, product testing designated software work to verify compliance, audit software compliance processes work, set up a group of software configuration management (SCMG), search software configuration management technology and the process of preparing / change is necessary and SCMdocument document has been prepared to promote the creation of the tool required.
Protection of knowledge, to improve the training, a team of internal evaluation process and a huge improvement teams processus.Sur the role of the special training of personnel, and the general conduct training CMM based software engineering , so that each item of staff awareness of process improvement and process improvement to master knowledge and skills nécessaires.En addition, attention should be given to research in software engineering, including methods, tools and processes to accelerate the backbone improved training process.
ability preparations to establish effective project management software, document-based software project management and monitor the process of implementation of the management process, using the principles of the organization to guide the project and to establish a commodity software work done and Zhunze checklist and quick implementation, then be revised based on the réactions.Adhérer appropriate control mechanisms, such as monitoring the progress of project established a system of regular institutionalized hebdomadaires.Ne daily activities and actual data collection, measurement and analysis. Repeat previous experience in the successful development of the project.
improve the whole process can be divided into seven steps.
Targeting: determining a period of time to achieve improved levels.
diagnosis of State: the state of the process improvement to achieve in relation to the current situation, identify gaps.
Plan “everything planned, planned to” CMM is not only emphasized, is the software development process should be noted.
Protocol development: process improvement is an important place, “everything has a view, and always record” so that if key people left, things can continue to produce original too, without pause .
pilot project to develop a perspective plan of action if the situation by implementing the adjustment process appropriées.Parmi them, in particular, attention should be paid to evaluation and audit to make regular monitoring, attention to measure data collection.
correction assessment: experience of the pilot concluded the process of changing regulations.
process to promote: expanding range of applications.
software implementation of measures to improve the process
Gong activities SI process improvement is a project, and is ideal for projects involving personnel, technology and resources to be numerous, but also to take advantage of a product or project Jindu Deng.Dans the same time, there is a constant back and forth, a spiral process.
The first step for executives constitute a commitment Tigong Di sufficient resources to host and prepare the completion of this preliminary phase of He Xin yes Pingjia SEPG Zuchang qualifications and skills, also includes the evaluation Peixun you can buy from Gongju Yusuan and if the corresponding time Zijinplace.
Whether commercial software, method or process of implementing CMM, establishing a standard, easy to use a code of conduct is the first software development work faire.Mais, remember the preparation of the specification should not be a long time, 10 to 12 days is necessary, the document should not be too much for 5 ~ 6 (good corresponding to five or six key sectors), it is the first key foisétape deux.SEPG head evaluation criteria can be smooth, smooth presentation of their procedures établies.Afin have the boss or the preparation phase of the direct supervision of Deputy Chief CMM.Mais work probably remember,过程 point forward, “comes from the practice Zhong, Shi Jian Dao” goes with Xiangmujingli, staff of experienced developers, discussions which gave timely issues SEPG Leader Fanyinggongzuo, Bing Juproblème can be solved in time.
The third step is the evaluation of the development and dissemination of policies and programs, including the restructuring of the system of measures encouraging development in the community, at this stage should involve the process of Gaijin Jie Guo Xi Guan Zhao.SEPG and implementation of CMM weekly meeting, the senior must participate, be registered or recorded as evidence, is an indicator of the evaluation.
In addition, improved CMM-based not companies should pay attention to the design review, code review and tests.De many programmers are accustomed to “do not want” such work, they are more concerned about the number of lines of code to write every day, the completion of several modules, in this attitude, they are not willing to review their work, and habitudesdans the test phase software to hide the error corrigée.processus CMM implementation is examined by a variety of reporting, early detection and change issues.
the implementation of the initial process or technology deployment, training has become a problem majeur.Toutefois, personnel changes, including necessary further training may not be aware that management training is important.Quant particularly those perfect technology was promoted to management positions, need a new set of skills, including interpersonal skills.
Project Manager in process improvement as a whole (in particular CMM 2) to reflect the workload of the entire half to three quarters of the total, in the assessment interview, also occupies a position clé.Certains project managers think they mind a plan, as long as the planned projects can be completed on time and shelf life, but this is not the case, coordination between the project team, the role of the leader is very clear.
pilot or simulation can be very small, even if only two people, or to guide SEPG joint program of simulation throughout the company, which is the best way to shorten the procès.activités configuration management, the first organization of training or learning activities configuration management and quality assurance activities during this period can be a good exercise.
CMM for software process capability of firms to provide an improved framework-type scale, which is based on all process improvement software engineering previous results, lessons learned and lessons of software engineering provides a Kuangjia based process improvement and has identified a software development logicielorganisations need to manage what are the main work, the relationship between these efforts and how the order step by step software may be due to work organization.
However, because not all look the CMM software process and quality improvement issues, no information domain Shi Xian Zai processes require knowledge and skills specific to software process Yao PSP activities Geti practices to fill this gap, and the process Youhuaainsi changed.